One way a country can control its economy is by imposing import restrictions (or conrols).
If an industry is just starting up (when it is called an infant industry) the government may help it because it makes the country richer and provides employment.
The government can help help an infant industry by subsidizing it or by imposing import restrictions to subsidize an industry means to give it grants or loans,
Import controls can protect it from competition by stopping or limiting the imporation of the goods the infant industry produces, the goverment might also impose taxes on imported goods, These taxes are called duty or tariffs.
Import controls may only be selective or temporary. If they only apply to certain goods or certain countries. they are selective.
进口管制只能是选择性的或临时的。 如果它们只适用于某些商品或某些国家。 他们是选择性的。
If they only apply for a limited time, they are temporary.
Traders may require a licence to import goods, A licence is a certificate which gives permission to do something. Traders may also be limited to a quota of goods, A quota is a maximum number.
Trade restrictions are enforced by the Customs and Excise department. Importers have to fill out a customs declaration form which declares that value of the goods so that the customs men can calculate the tariffs(taxes) they must pay.
To make the job of the customs department easier, the invoice for the goods is sometimes certified as accurate by the consulate of the importing country before the goods leave the exporting country, The invoice is then called a consular invoice.
The consular invoice is sometimes also used as a certificate of origin ( Although this may be a separate document)
The certificate of origin is a certificate which shows where the goods come from originally (this is necessary if they have travelled through another country).
It can be important to show the origin of goods when the importing and exporting countries have speical trade agreements, because traders may pay less duty.
A government often makes trade agreements with its trading partners (countries with which it trades regularly).
Under trade agreements certain goods from certain countries may be exempt from (they do not have to pay) some of the tariffs (taxes), or they may be allowed bigger quotas.